Tag archive

featured

Four Hardgainer Cardio Solutions

IMG_0584

I think you’ll agree with me when I say:

Conditioning is the most overlooked aspect of building athletic muscle, especially for skinny dudes. After all, you need to do is eat, hoist huge weights, and eat some more and you’ll easily build muscle.

Or is it?

In today’s post, I’ll show you how to escape from hardgainer hell and improve your conditioning while simultaneously building high-performance muscle.

Building slabs of high-performance muscle isn’t just lifting and crushing your diet—you need specific conditioning for hardgainers for optimal muscular development, workout efficiency, and overall health.

What’s the point in being strong and jacked without the ability to use or sustain your athleticism?

conditioning for hardgainers

Yea, gaining mass is hard work, and along with the hard work comes a fear of over-conditioning and as a result, stalling muscle growth. Don’t fall for the belief that conditioning will zap your training to the detriment of your health and athletic performance.

When it’s all said and done the real badasses are strong and well-conditioned machines, not just muscular.

Don’t be like most scraggly hardgainers who avoid conditioning like it’s an Ebola-laced napkin. Your gains won’t hemorrhage out of all your orfices, far from it.

I’ve been around the block and spent my time as a hard-gainer. I’ve done moderate steady state cardio, kept volume super-low, and even skipped conditioning completely.

As a result, I’ve grown a smidge bigger, but I always lose athleticism, and gain a ton of fat.

Drop the “conditioning keeps me small” sob story—it’s time to maximize your training with well-planned and precisely executed conditioning. With these four conditioning methods you’ll build renewed athleticism and get jacked with minimal fat gain in your escape from hardgainer hell.

1) Low Volume Sprints

 Option One: Sprints Before Lifting: 

Sprinting before lifting is ideal for improving performance in athletes and potentiating the nervous system for heavy lifts and explosive training. This comes with a risk vs reward trade-off as sprinting done before training should be enough to spark the nervous system yet low enough in volume and intensity to not fatigue the body and hinder lifting ability.

Moreover, sprinting is a technical movement that needs practice. The most most nuerally demanding and explosive exercises need maximum focus and energy and thus, must done first in a workout.

That’s why jumps get scheduled before Olympic lifts or heavy strength work. The neural demands of sprints need full focus and energy for maximum performance at the beginning of your workout.

Perform low volume, short distance sprints before training rather than long-duration sprints when you’re already gassed and fatigued. Two days per week perform five sets of 10-20 yards with walk-back recovery and adding one sprint per week is ideal.

This way, you’ll condition the body to high velocity, high impact movement without excess stress and training volume to interfere with your gains. 

hardgainer conditioning

Option Two: Sprints at the end of your workout:

I’m a huge fan of sprints, agility drills, and movement skills, but there’s a catch:

Performing any coordinative skill under excess fatigue runs the risk of engraining a poor movement pattern and subsequent injury.

In other words, sprinting while exhausted from your hardgainer training is a great pop yo’ hammies, especially if you haven’t sprinted in ages.

While sprints are obviously a great exercise, and not inherently “bad” or dangerous, they’re a skill that requires mechanics and practice before piling on tons of volume, a process to which most gym rats aren’t willing to dedicate time.

That said, sprints as a conditioning tool do them with sub-maximal speeds and on a hill or incline. Using an incline and submaximal speeds prevents over striding and most hamstring related injuries.

If you go with this option sprint two days per week on a treadmill or hill. Don’t worry about the specifics; work your ass off for 10 minutes with 5-10 second sprints and 30-60 second rests. Increase your speed before the jacking up the incline to technique.

            Do your Sprints:

As a performance coach first I prefer sprints before any lifting because of the neural demands mentioned above. Being strong is important, but being athletic is more about movement than just being strong in the gym.

Without a base of movement it doesn’t matter how strong you are, inefficiencies in movement will hold back your high performance training.

Sprints fire up fast-twitch fibers and potentiate your nervous system for greater muscular recruitment and strength to keep your strong and shredded as you escape hardgainer hell.

Tweet: Build muscle and stay lean with this training tip : http://ctt.ec/41bCa+Tweet: Build muscle and stay lean with this training tip : http://ctt.ec/41bCa+

 2) Conditioning Complexes

Before going any further there is a clear distinction between complex pairs and conditioning complexes.

Complex pairs use a heavy strength movement and an explosive lighter movement in sequence to improve explosive performance. Complex pairs are an advanced training method for elite sports performance, which I covered in depth here on elitefts.

When it comes to conditioning I’m referring to barbell complexes: A series of major movement patterns performed in-series without rest. Better yet, complexes only take 5-10 minutes at the end of your workout to keep you lean while you get big and jacked.

Regardless of strength levels I’d recommend starting with an empty barbell. Speed and full range of motion are more important than weight. Besides, adding too much weight will hinder your recovery and conflict with the rest of your intelligent programming. Move as fast as possible through each exercise (with good form, ahem) and without putting the bar down. Your heart will be pulsating through your t-shirt, your lunges will scream, but damn you will be glad you did these.

“Rookie”

  • deadlift 4×12 rest 0
  • hang clean 4×12 rest 0
  • Military press 4×12 rest 0
  • front squat 4×12 rest 60-90 sec
hardgainer conditioning
http://www.flickr.com/photos/jaredpolin/4560294699/

“The Olympian” 

Hang Snatch 3×10 Rest 0

Push Press 3×10 Rest 0

Hang Clean 3×10 Rest 0

Front Squat 3×10 Rest 0

Front Squat Reverse Lunge 3×10 Rest 0

High Pull 3×10 rest 60-90 sec

**Note: If you don’t know how to properly perform these exercises avoid this sequence. Never perform exercises without proper training, but even more with overhead lifts such as the Olympic lifts.

“The Widow Maker”

Overhead Press 2×10 Rest 0

back squat 2×10 Rest 0

reverse lunge 2×10 Rest 0

hang clean 2×10 Rest 0

front squat 2×10 Rest 0

  • bent over row 2×10 Rest 0
  • Romanian deadlift 2×10 Rest 0
  • Front Squat lunge 2×10 Rest 0
  • biceps curl 2×10 Rest 0
  • front squat hold calf raise 2×10 Rest 90-120 sec

Complexes are an ideal conditioning tool for hard-gainers once per week because they’re of short duration and high-density. As a result, the conditioning affects span beyond the immediate workout because of exercise post-oxygen consumption (EPOC). In other words, your heart rate stays jacked up for greater cardiovascular benefit to keep you leaner while your building muscle.

Tweet: Build muscle and stay lean with this training tip : http://ctt.ec/41bCa+Tweet: Build muscle and stay lean with this training tip : http://ctt.ec/41bCa+

 

3)Jumping Rope

Hardcore exercises like sled pushes and sprints get all the glory, but one old school tool doesn’t’ get the attention it lightly deserves: the jump rope.

Jumping rope is low impact and not-overly catabolic—two huge factors in recover for hardgainers. Beyond that, jumping rope is safer than most conditioning drills for two reasons.

First, jumping rope is a self-limiting exercise: to jump rope without failing you must stay in an aligned, joint stacked position while moving, forcing your trunk to stay engaged and resilient under the load of movement. If you miss mess up, welt your calves or triceps, or catch a toe, the exercise ends. All of this makes it extremely unlikely to over-do it; and, even better, nearly impossible to incur injury.

Second, jumping rope is a low-impact movement, despite a high number of foot strikes. Here’s why this is important for us formerly skinny guys: the lower impact does not create a hyper-catabolic environment that will erode your precious hypertrophy like other repetitive impact exercises. In other words, you will get shredded without about dropping lean body mass.

For hardgainer conditioning Double-Unders and the Runnin’ Man are my two go-to conditioning drills with each being performed twice per week with at least 48 hours between workouts.
So, if I did double-unders as my focus on Monday I would wait until Wednesday or Thursday until my next jump-rope conditioning session.

Double Unders:

Exactly like it sounds—whip the jump rope two times in a row with one singular jump. Work up to sets of 10 and use a lighter rope, like the Cross Rope Burn set. Rests 30-60 seconds and continue on for 10-15 minutes or until your lungs and calves explode, your choice.

Runnin’ Man:

No, you don’t need the Running Man outfit Arnold wore in the movie, but that will increase your anabolism 400%. Fact. Seriously, I’m kidding. But, seriously.

Run in place while skipping the rope. Not only will this improve your coordination, it’s a deceptively tough conditioning workout. Go for time and work up to 10-15 minutes of continuous “running.” The impact is far less than your traditional steady state cardio or plodding along on the treadmill.

 

As it stands, the jump rope is the ultimate low impact tool for accelerated fat loss, conditioning, and improved athleticism for hard gainers.

Tweet: Build muscle and stay lean with this training tip : http://ctt.ec/41bCa+

4) Sled Work

I’m a huge proponent of sled-work as a conditioning tool. Hardgainers are terrified of conditioning exercises overloading their recoverability and zapping their hypertrophy.

Besides building muscle, sled work gets better: 

Sleds have no eccentric stress—the stress incurred on the “negative” of resistance training exercises that causes the most muscle damage. For this reason, the volume accumulated with sleds won’t hinder recover to the same extent as other training methods.

Once the force applied to the sled exceeds that needed to overcome friction all muscular actions are concentric, resulting in increased total training volume and thus, increased protein synthesis for muscle building. For this reason, sled work is great to improve conditioning and muscle building without stressing the body past its recoverability.

In other words, sleds are a top tool to help you minimize fat gain and improve conditioning—especially if you’re a hustlin’ hardgainer with muscle building ambitions.

Hardgainer Cardio Solutions

It’s important to prioritize weight training as it’s the driving force for muscle building. Regardless, well planned conditioning is imperative to improve work capacity, improve athleticism, and keep you lean while you’re bulking. Conditioning one to three times per week, but absolutely no more.

Sample Conditioning Routine

Monday: Upper Body Training
Tuesday: Lower Body Training+ Sprint work

Wednesday: Off or Jump Rope

Thursday: Upper Body Training

Friday: Total Body Training + Sled Work
Saturday: Off

Sunday: Off 

Tweet: Build muscle and stay lean with this training tip : http://ctt.ec/41bCa+Build muscle and stay lean with this training tip : http://ctt.ec/41bCa+” /></a>


Wrap Up:

The hard to swallow fact is you still need some conditioning even if you’re looking to gain mass. Hypertrophy training is no reason to get fat and out of-shape—it’s a cop out for laziness and poor planning even for the locked in hard-gainer.

Train with these four conditioning methods you’ll build renewed athleticism and get seriously jacked with minimal fat gain in your escape from hardgainer hell.

 

P.S. Find This Article Helpful?

Then please, share it with your friends, family, and colleagues using the social media tab on top of the page and I’ll give Rocky another treat.

IMG_0751

And if you want to join my VIP newsletter for exclusive content, fill out the form at the top of the page. I’ll send you training manuals 100% Free in less than 60 seconds.

[A variation of this article was published on T-Nation]

High Frequency Training for Bigger Arms in Six Weeks

Lifting Tempo, Fat Gripz Review

Key Points:

  • Total body High Frequency Training gets you the fastest results in the shortest time. 

 

  • After years of training results become harder to come by– to see rapid results you need a focused approach.

 

  • All the volume in the world doesn’t mean jack-shit if you don’t apply tension to the muscles—pursue strength and total body movement.

 

  • Decrease training on non-focus muscles to maximize recovery of your arms.
  • Don’t specialize too long unless you’re interested in being weak, puny, and un-athletic.

I overheard a conversation the other day that went along the lines of “I don’t care if I build big arms, I just want to be “functional.”

Huh?

Seriously?

What the hell does that even mean?

Functional of a training program is determined by your goals.

If being jacked is the goal then a massive set of pythons is as functional as it gets.

high frequency training

Say goodbye to your toothpick arms, it’s time to build thick guns that are both show and go.

There are tons of “specialization” programs around, but most share a common flaw–they abandon high-performance training.

Even worse, most trainees specialize before they’re strong enough to benefit; neglect major exercises like squats and deadlifts for 12lb cheat curls, setting themselves up for perpetual disappointment and no more muscle to show for their efforts.

As a result, overzealous lifters with poorly constructed programs never actually get stronger and thus, never get bigger. By neglecting performance they leave huge gaps in training, ignore strength, and never build a foundation to build muscle.
Then, these same dudes focus on specialized programs too long, leaving them weak, puny, and un-athletic.

You’re better than that. 

If you put in the work, you’ll have your cake and eat it too–a body that performs and looks like an athletic bad-ass.

high frequency training

Once the foundation is built short-window specialization adds the finishing touches to build big arms. That’s accomplished with this plan–a total body routine with focused isolation work to pound your arms into growth.

Why Specialization?

Let me know if this sounds familiar: After years of training, rapid gains become difficult to come by.

You’re pissed, impatient, and want results yesterday.

You keep getting stronger, but the journey only yields a few measly of muscle… if you’re lucky.

Over time, this builds a great physique, but when you’re short on patience you need a different approach.

This is where specialization comes in; instead of throwing a set of hammer curls at the end of your routine use a short, intensive approach to shock the body into growth.

This method has been popularized by Christian Thibaudeau and my man John Romaniello and tested by thousands: Periods of six to eight weeks of focused destruction bring up lagging body parts faster than the “slow and steady” approach.

How Specialization Works

You’re “strong like bull” from your squats, pull-ups, presses, and deadlifts. Hell, you’ll even develop some hops, speed, and athleticism outside of the gym.

This is great, but solely training for sport and strength leaves gaps in your “show” muscles.

You want to look good and play good; it’s time you get both with focused assistance work to stimulate hypertrophy.

  • Training volume decreases in non-specialized muscles.
  • Continue to train strength and movement to prevent drops in strength and athleticism.
  • Increase in training volume to target muscles for focused growth for set period of time (6-8 weeks).
  • Decrease in training volume after the specialization to allow of super compensation and full recovery.

The body only has a select reserve of recovery resources—you can’t specialize in your arms and train for a marathon, it won’t work.

By targeting exercises that and increasing volume on exercises that emphasize the arms while reducing volume in other exercises you’ll target recovery resources to the area most in need—your arms.

Training Splits

All the volume in the world doesn’t mean jack-shit if you don’t surpass the bodies minimal essential strain (MES), induce an anabolic response and apply tension to force your muscles to grow. 

Nothing accomplishes these tasks better than total body movements.

I’m talkin’ squats, hinges, sprints, presses, pulls, lunges, and carries. These exercises make up the brunt of well-designed weight training programs, specialized or not.

Design Your Workout with the Following Components

Movement Training

Everyone’s an athlete, and athletes move. Spend some time doing low volume sprints, hill sprints, stairs, and/or change of direction work after your dynamic warm-up or with 10 minutes of conditioning twice per week.

A little bit goes a long way to not looking like a goon outside the gym.

Explosive Exercises

Explosive exercises like jumps, throws, and push-ups jump-start workouts to increase neural activation, improve explosiveness, and maximize muscle fiber recruitment for later exercises.

Compound Exercises

Compound exercises provide the backbone for your strength foundation. To emphasize greater growth in the arms my favorite lifts are as follows:

high frequency training
photocredit: http://shredforless.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/front-squat1.jpg
  • Squats: Front squats, back squats, box squats, and Goblet squats
  • Press: Floor press, pin press, push press, close grip bench press, single arm press, dumbbell bench press variations
  • Pull: Supinated bent-over row, dumbbell rows, inverted rows, neutral grip pull-ups, chin-ups, rope climbs
  • Lunge: lunges, split squats, Bulgarian split squats
  • Carry: waiter walks, farmer carries, single arm carries, overhead carries

Isolation Exercises

Face it; you have a closet bodybuilder inside of you. Feed the beast with a diet of biceps and triceps isolation. At least two exercises per workout are necessary. Emphasize, “feeling” the muscle do the work to create muscular and metabolic damage to stimulate muscle growth.

 

Unilateral Exercises

Unilateral exercises prevent imbalances from stalling your training, injuries from manifesting, and achieve greater activation of motor units. Greater muscular recruitment and balance will yield better gains.

 

Volume, Frequency, Intensity, and Progression

To get stronger, more athletic, and jacked you need to train more often. Training frequency, whether you’re an athlete training or adding mass, is one of the most important factors to getting the fastest results possible. 

Related: High Frequency Training: Your Strength Building Solution

Ideally, you’ll train arms every training session. To optimize your training for muscle growth total volume and frequency are kept high while volume during each session is kept in check. Too much volume in one workout will overshoot your recovery and trash your next workouts, don’t be too aggressive.

Varying Intensity

While you’ll be adding slabs of meat onto your humeri there’s also a major emphasis on total body strength development.

To minimize gaps in strength and hypertrophy you’ll perform sets of 1-15 reps at varying intensities. Strength movements are trained early in each workout to emphasize continual strength gains.

Progression

Progression is simple—progressive overload on your strength exercises each week of the program.

3-5 sets of 3-5 reps is plenty.

Don’t go wild on every set of the day or you’ll overshoot your recovery capabilities.

Remember, the increase in training frequency for your muscles will be plenty to stimulate growth.

Training Schedule

best training days on this program are Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday Or Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Saturday.

This allows time for full recovery of muscles between workouts since you won’t be going berserk on lower body training.
Overall, this schedule maximizes recovery to boost muscle growth.

Get the High Frequency Training Workout

Consistently get stronger in all your lifts for the next 4-8 weeks to stretch your shirtsleeves.

Once you finish the program drop all isolation work on the arms.

All. Of. It.

Even the curls.

The goal is recovery and allowing the hard work of the last few weeks manifest into additional hypertrophy, neglecting this WILL trash your results.

If you choose eight weeks wait at least a month before starting a specialization program on the arms again. Then, re-engage a full assault on the arms for additional hypertrophy.

Final Thoughts

Once the foundation is built short-window specialization adds the finishing touches. This isn’t time to abandon a total body training style to focus on one measly body part—you can still make massive gains with some focused specialization. Train with specialization for six to eight weeks at a shot, then back things off for rapid arm growth—this is the most effective way to build big arms.

Get Your Massive Arms Program Today

Seven Laws of Building Athletic Muscle

I almost quit.

Twice.

I failed as an athlete trying to build athletic muscle and as a college meathead trying to re-establish some semblance of athleticism. I wasn’t’ happy with my porous results and I wouldn’t be happy unless I had the best of both worlds—being athletic and muscular. Not one, not the other, but both. What’s the point in being a muscle bound sluggish Ogre or lacking confidence?

There’s more to building athletic muscle than deadlifts and lifting weights. Instead of being ripe with dysfunction and scrawny you must ditch the old school “body-part splits,” “insanity workouts,” and “ the Westside or Die” mentality. There’s no perfect recipe.

Forget these tools, they’re only a method of training. What’s needed are sound principles to make real change and get things done. Your body should exude confidence in your abilities and perform in the world, not just the platform. These seven things will build explosiveness, lean muscle, shred body fat, and boost your confidence.

sprints, building athletic muscle
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/rethwill/8752384617/

1.)  Movement is a Must

The most common tip to become a better athlete is “get stronger.” This is important, but sports are more about movement than being strong. An over-emphasis on building strength is as dangerous as minimizing it. Without a base of movement it doesn’t matter how strong you are, inefficiencies in movement will hold back your high performance training. Sports occur with jumps, throws, sprints, cuts, hops, and reactive movement, not barbells and dumbbells.

Besides, sprints keep your fast twitch muscles firing on all cylinders and maintain explosiveness as you age. Perform jumps and throws before workouts. Sprint and do change of direction drills two or three times per week to keep you athletic and lean.

2.) Build a base of strength

There are multiple types of strength, but we’re focusing on absolute and relative strength.

Relative Strength is the amount of strength relative to body size. This reflects a person’s ability to control or move their body through space. All else being equal, smaller individuals have higher relative strength.

Absolute Strength is the maximum amount of force exerted regardless of muscle or body size. Greater amounts of absolute strength favor those with higher bodyweight and in general, larger individuals.

Building a base of strength improves relative strength (when size is in check) and improves your ability to generate force.

building athletic muscle
Building Athletic muscle require heavy lifting

Why this matters:

You want a body that performs as well as it looks. Both absolute strength and relative strength are needed for high-performance gains. Greater relative strength can be driven up by greater absolute strength and tested through activities that require moving the body through space—jumps, chin-ups, sprints, and bodyweight movements in sport.

Plus, you’ll increase nervous system activation, leading too:

1.  Increases muscle fiber recruitment: the number of muscle fibers being recruited.

2.  Increases speed of rate coding: the speed at which the body sends electrical signals to the muscles.

These both lead to greater adaptation and improvements in workout performance and help you build lean muscle. Build your strength base, it improves your ability to build lean muscle, strength, boosts your endurance, and shreds body fat.

3.) Progressive overload

I hate to break it to you, but squats, cleans, presses, pulls and lunges are still the best for building lean muscle and strength. Too maximize these exercises you must progressively overload the body. That means add weight, decrease rest, and increase training volume. Push your body beyond its abilities or you won’t grow. Get comfortable being uncomfortable or get left behind.

4.) Keep Isolation Isolated

By isolation exercises I’m referring to the typical bodybuilder exercises: lateral raises, biceps curls, and the like. Except for a few exercises at the end of your workouts these isolation exercises are inefficient and a waste of time. They’re a piece of the puzzle for building muscle, but everything has its place. With a limited amount of time to train you’re better off building strength and explosiveness. Get strong, and then worry about isolation, as it’s needed. For others use isolation as it’s needed to prevent injury and improve movement. Here I’m referring to your rotator cuff exercises, activation exercises in your hips and trunk and the like. Make them a piece of the puzzle, but not the main focus of your workouts.

5.) Pride, Passion, and Perseverance.

“Pride, passion, and perseverance.”

“Pride, passion, and perseverance.”

I remember my High-School Football coach preaching these terms over, and over, and over again. I used to think he was full of shit, but he’s right. These three terms are vital to your success on and off the field.

Pride to put your best foot forward and pursue your goals no matter the circumstances. Passion to be relentless and put in the time when no-one is working. Perseverance to push through plateaus and struggles that will occur. Attacking training with pride, passion, and perseverance is imperative to building athletic muscle.

“Knowing” what to do is great, but it won’t get you results. Put in the work!

6.) Exercise Risk/Reward

Everything is a tool and requires a risk-reward analysis.

building athletic muscle
Sorry, this won’t help you unless you’re training for the circus

The behind-the-neck overhead press is a great muscle builder, but creates shoulder impingement and dysfunction in lots of individuals. Is the trade-off worth it?

No. Each exercise is a tool, not the end-all-be-all. There are dozens of exercises to train the same muscles, pick a better option.

7.) De-loading Exercise

Train all you want, but without an emphasis on recovery you’ll end up beat up, weak, and un-athletic.

Training hard is rarely the missing piece for progress. That title goes to recovery, the vital component that most athletes neglect. Intense exercise causes tons of stress: joint & ligament stress, muscular damage, neural fatigue, and hormone disruption are all factors that must be taken into account and is highly individualized to each athlete. Beginners may be able to go for months without backing down; however, advancing athletes require individually specialized programs to maximize training gains. De-load, do recovery workouts, use soft-tissue therapies and contrast showers for better recovery.

Building Athletic Muscle Wrap Up

There’s more to building muscle and being athletic than your strength numbers. Get off the platform and into the world. You have to move, move well, and move often in a variety of ways. You have a finite amount of resources for training; pick exercises wisely, train hard, and be persistent. There you have it. These principles are key for building athletic muscle without turning you into a bloated ball of fail.

 

About:Eric Bach, CSCS, PN1 is a strength coach at Steadman Hawkins Sports Performance in Denver, Colorado. As an author Eric has been featured in publications such as T-Nation, eliteFTS, and the PTDC. He is the owner of Bach Performance where he coaches clients to take control of their lives, helping them become stronger, shredded, and more athletic. Get your Free Ebook 101 Tips to Jacked and Shredded Here.Athletic Muscle Building

FACEBOOK: www.facebook.com/bachperformance/
TWITTER: twitter.com/Eric_Bach

P.S.

If you want all of this programmed into a workout to finally build the body you desire join Bach Performance Online Coaching today. I’ve got a ton of projects coming an awesome things for you coming up, so stay tuned and join the Bach Performance community for exclusive offers and updates.

Join us now at Bach Performance.com 

Have a tip to add? Drop the Comment Here, I’d love to see it!

 

photo credit: oscarandtara via photopin cc

How To Squat Big Weight

[Piece Written for Natural Power and Muscle Magazine, download your free copy here]

” Drive through the earth.”

“Make the plates jump.”

“Accelerate as fast as possible.”

“Explode all the way up.”

You’ve heard the cues to squat big weight, but what do they actually mean? More importantly, will they teach you how to squat big weight

For a big squat you need to be strong AND explosive-– one without the other leaves much to be desired in the rack and on the playing field. 

Problem is training both is complicated. You need to develop speed, speed-strength, power and maximum strength qualities to reach your potential and keep your chicken legged’ squat off the safety racks. Don’t worry, it’s not as complex as it sounds, at least not after you read this. Miss out on these methods and you’ll be stuck in mediocrity; however, if you work hard you’ll explode through plateaus and finally learn how to squat big weight.

 Force Velocity Curve

What?

Graphs? 

Don’t worry, it’s not your eleventh grade math class. The force velocity curve is a hyperbolic graph that shows the relationship between force and velocity, an inverse relationship between weight (force) and the velocity (speed) that you lift the weight. The heavier the weight the slower movement (absolute strength);conversely, the lighter the weight the faster the speed (speed) of the movement. These qualities make up opposite sides of the spectrum, with speed-strength, strength-speed, and power making up the middle of the curve. force velocity curve for squats, How to Squat Big weight, speed squat, big squat,  How to squat big weights Photo Credit: elitefts.com

To squat big weight  multiple qualities must be trained to minimize weak points and optimize the nervous system to fire all on cylinders. If either end of the curve is neglected performance will suffer. You can’t train solely maximum strength if you want to be your strongest and you can’t train solely “speed” to be explosive.

Qualities on the Force-Velocity Curve

Maximum Strength: Here’s the heavy lifting, generally 85%+ maximum effort for multiple sets of 1-5 five reps to build maximum strength. Going heavy is vital to developing a big squat, but avoid shitting a kidney and missing reps. Missing reps overtaxes your nervous system, leaves you weaker, and wrecks your confidence. Hit reps the you know you’ll make and yourself for the occasional max-out attempts.

Strength-Speed, Speed-strength and Power: Speed-strength and strength-speed are synonymous with power: They both produce a super-high power output compared with their longer duration, lower velocity counterpart maximum strength. Compare a tractor trailer and a Ferrari— It’s great to have a ton of horsepower, but for high-performance it’s best to generate horsepower rapidly.

Power= Work/Time

In this case explosive barbell exercises are best using loads between 30%-85% for multiple low-rep sets is best. (Baechle & Earle, 2008). Maximum power is achieved through moving moderate loads at high velocity with loads of 40-60% 1-rm. For a big squat speed squats are ideal for power development, technique practice, and increased work capacity. Brace hard, use a rapid, yet controlled descent and explode out of the hole.

With lower resistances speed-strength is addressed with an emphasis on velocity of movement against a small load. This could be a sled sprint with 10% bodyweight, light jump-squats, or single leg plyometric.

Speed: Pure velocity is the key and exercises like un-weighted box jumps, broad jumps and  sprint work. If a big squat is your focus then jumps are the best option because they match the mechanical movement of the squat and have minimal risk compared to sprints.

Your best choices are broad jumps, vertical jumps, and box jumps to increase your rate of force development and explode through stick points.

[Side Note: If you’re an athlete that requires speed for on-field dominance there needs to be a premium placed on it. In this case intense movement skills like acceleration and top end speed should be the first priority in your training, not lifting maximal weight.]

Squat Pattern Velocity Movements:

For developing a strong, explosive squat the intensities on the force velocity curve must be trained. Not every quality must be trained in each training session, but all need to be addressed. Squatting twice per week allows you to do just that with one heavy and one speed session. Separate these sessions by at least 48-72 hours for full recovery.

Here are the best exercises for the squat pattern in the Force-Velocity Continuum: It’s simple– contrary to what Tracy Anderson says,  if you lift foo-foo weights your body won’t surpass it’s minimal essential strain. The SAID principle states that specific adaptations occur based on the imposed demands.  You must train each quality of the strength curve to minimize imbalances and develop balanced strength, power, and speed.

Speed: Box Jump, vertical jump, broad jump

Speed-Strength: Dumbbell or Vertimax jump squat

Strength-Speed: Speed Squats with 40-75%

Maximum Strength: Squat singles at 85-95%+

Targeting the squat pattern with multiple sessions per week while addressing force-velocity spectrum leads to greater gains in power, strength, and explosiveness.

The Workout

[Download Natural Power and Muscle Magazine for the workout and articles from Nate Miyaki, Eric Prush, Tony Bonvechio,and JC Deen

Day 1: Speed-Strength+ Maximum Strength

Dynamic Movement and (optional) movement skills

1a. DB Jump Squat 3×5

1b. Plank 3×45 sec

2a. Heavy Squat 5×2-3 @ 85-95%

2b. lateral band march x8

3a. Bulgarian Split Squat 3×8-10

3b. Palloff Press 3×12

4. Sled March/ Prowler Push

Day 2: Upper Body Push/Pull

squat big weight, how to squat big weight

Day 3: Strength-Speed + Speed

Dynamic Movement and (optional) movement skills

1a.Broad Jump 3×5

1b. Side Plank 3×30 sec.

2a. Speed Squat 5×3-5 @40-75%

2b. Fire Hydrant x8

3a. Barbell RDL 4×8-10

3b. BW Glute Bridge 4×12

4. DB Walking Lunge 2-3×8-12

Day 4: Upper Body Push/Pull

Wrap Up

It’s not typical for most to squat more than once per week, but neither is being strong, shredded, and athletic.

At some point you’ll plateau and gains stop getting results so easily. When it happens it’s frustrating and leaves you searching the “interwebz” for answers. This plan teaches you how to squat big weight– with multiple sessions, fluctuating intensity, and training multiple qualities to achieve rapid gains in explosive strength and power.

Enjoy this post?

Please pass this post on to three people Or share it on your favorite social network.

 

The Rise of knowledge and downfall of fads: The Ultimate Beginners Guide for Weightlifting

The gym is the one place people worry about what others think, except for the middle-school lunchroom. No one wants to look like a weight-training beginner—even beginners. Having spent much time in the gym the sad truth is most people have no idea what they’re doing—even if they’ve been lifting for years.

The Ultimate Beginners Guide for Weightlifting
Photo credit: http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Lifeandhealth/Pix/pictures/2008/01/04/gym1.jpg

Learning proper technique and maximizing your efficiency in the gym is tough these days. Inconsistent, contradictory information from all sources of media has created an environment ripe with confusion. No wonder so many people struggle to build a strong, shredded and athletic body.

As a Beginner I was there too.

I struggled in the gym and became overwhelmed by empty promises of results from supplements, workout programs, and ludicrous articles with one-size fits all approaches.

Luckily, I learned from and work with some of the world’s best coaches. I have great network of brilliant professionals and work with athletes of all ages and ability levels.

In The Ultimate Beginners Guide for Weightlifting you’ll find out what works in the gym and be outfitted with the training knowledge to get results most people can only dream of.

What Beginners Say (And Do)

We’ve all seen it. The group of dudes in cut-off t-shirts with bright red pre-workout drinks bench pressing and blasting biceps curls three days per week, yet with no discernible improvements.

Or the young athlete wavering under a 45 bar with a bewildered expression.

Or the residential cardio queen who refuses to do anything besides cardio and endless sets triceps kickbacks to “tone” the muscles.

Despite potentially large efforts and time commitments these are still beginners. This isn’t a result of poor efforts; rather, misinformation and a lack of guidance. Rather than  saying“ I told you so” I’ll share the  principles, knowledge, and facts to make sure you’re prioritizing correctly in the gym.

1.You’ve never touched a weight. In fact, “what the hell is a dumbbell?”

2.”Bro, I don’t need bigger legs. Plus, I’m running a 5k in two weeks, I don’t need to lift my legs”

3.You believe weight training will make you “too big or bulky.”

4.You can’t perform simple bodyweight movements such as push-ups.

5.You train to get as sore as possible.

6.You train solely by body parts, rather than movements.

7.You perform the same monotonous, ineffective program day-in day-out.

8.Your program isn’t based around full-body movements like: squats, deadlifts, presses, rows, lunges, and cleans

9.”Chase the pump baby, nothing under eight reps!”– because you only want to build muscle.

10.You change exercises every workout because “muscle confusion is the way to go.”

11.You have spent years in the weight room, yet you have little strength or physique improvements to show for it.

12.You devote two days to building up your arms, yet can’t perform 6 solid pull-ups.

13. You don’t even have a program.

Enough beating the dead horse, you get my point– You need Principles. Principles are simple–they provide the foundation and groundwork for success no matter the circumstances.

Principles for the Ultimate Beginners Guide for Weightlifting

1.Train Movements, Not Muscles

The most crippling problem for beginners is isolating each muscle group rather than training compound, multi-joint movements. This is majoring in the minors and a sure-fire way to be small, weak, and injury prone.

 

 

Strength training with basic movement patterns is the best way to develop a strong strength base. As such you have limited time and energy to dedicate to training and picking the right exercises is key to getting results in the gym. Biceps curls, lateral shoulder raises, and hamstring curls aren’t bad, but they shouldn’t make up the majority of your program. Isolation exercises only focus on a small part of the body and won’t provide the necessary stimulus to transform your body. Even bodybuilders, known for their insane isolation exercises and high volume, place focus on big movements like squats as the backbone of their programs.

The Ultimate Beginners Guide for Weightlifting
Photo Credit http://undergroundstrengthmanual.com/images/arnold-squats.jpg

There are seven human movements patterns, but for the scope of this article I will cover five: Squat, hinge, lunge, push, and pull. The list below has each movement pattern and corresponding exercises to form the base for good programming.

Hinge: deadlift (all variations), good morning, kettlebell swings

Lunge: lunge, split squat, step back lunge, bulgarian split squat

Push: bench press, push-up, overhead press, jerk, one arm presses

Pull:pull-up, bent-over row, seated row, one arm row

Squat: Front squat, goblet squat, zercher squat, back squat

These exercises require major muscles working at multiple joints to perform movement, just like most movements in sport and life. These major movements must be emphasized early in a training career to build impressive results.

Eric’s Recommendation:  Focus on three movement patterns per workout, aiming to add weight to the bar during each workout. Plan all movements patterns equally for balanced training.

2.    Stick to the basics

You know those dudes standing in the corner of the gym doing curls on that half-ball bosu thing? Don’t do that. When it comes down to it the basics have withstood the test of time and should make up the majority of training. Prevalent in the fitness industry is the idea that complicated means effective. Non-sense. Programs consisting of 43 different exercises, pain-inducing timed sets, complex training, chains, and bands are not necessary for beginners. All of those are advanced methods and must be carefully programmed. There is a reason barbell and dumbbell exercises have been around for 100+ years—they work. Squats, deadlifts, cleans, push ups, and lunges etc. should be the primary exercises used in your programs. You’re not a special butterfly, the same exercises that worked 100 years ago will provide the best results today.

Basics are best for weight training beginners, How the best bodies are Built: The Rise of knowledge and downfall of fads"
Photo credit: http://www.rosstraining.com/images/gorner2.jpg

Eric’s Recommendation: Don’t follow fad programs or look for the latest exercise trend in the fitness industry. Instead, seek out tenured coaches that preach the basic tenants of training. I recommend Jason Ferruggia and Jim Wendler.

3.    Quality over Quantity

It’s important track weights, beat personal records, and add weight to the bar, but it’s more important to improve the quality of each rep. Focus on perfecting technique and mastering mechanics of the major movements.  This means achieving depth on your squat, staying tight on your deadlift, and performing full chin-ups when you hit the gym. Proper technique on exercises will yield better gains, fewer injuries, and a longer training career—That’s more important than beating your buddy in a bench-off.

Eric’s Recommendation: Take videos of your training. Is your technique up-to-par? Consider hiring a coach to ensure proper technique and optimal quality.

4.    Exercise Order

Proper exercise order is vital for exercise performance and safety. Due to requirements of the nervous system and muscles it’s important to program certain exercises before others. Contrary to many workouts of the day (WOD’s) it’s stupid and dangerous to run 400 meter sprints followed by 15 power cleans and 50 box jumps. That’s recipe for overtraining and injury, not high performance gains. According to the NSCA Essentials of Strength and Conditioning “Compound power and core exercises require the highest level of skill and concentration of all exercises and are most affected by fatigue. Athletes who become fatigued are prone to using poor technique and consequently are at a higher risk of injury. “(Baechle and Earle 390-391) Sounds pretty damn important to me.

Eric’s Recommendation: I recommend the following order for exercises: 1. Dynamic movements: Jumps, sprints, throws 2.Explosive/Power: Power cleans, snatches 3.Compound Strength: Squats, deadlifts, presses, pulls 4.Compound/higher rep/hypertrophy: Squats, deadlifts, presses, pulls 5. Isolation work: Curls, calf raises, leg extensions 6. Conditioning  

5. Free Weights Over Machines

Beginners head straight for machines when they enter the gym. It’s completely understandable. Easy to use instructions, change weight with a small pin, and a place to rest in between sets (I hope not). Despite their convenience most machines are pieces of crap. Why? Machines lock the body into place during movement patterns, which removes real-world carry over.  Although you can use more resistance on machines the arms and legs are writing checks the body can’t cash. Your body doesn’t know how to use the strength or muscles in movement because the supporting parts of the body aren’t fit to handle the load. Essentially, you’re placing a jet engine in a go-cart with no steering wheel. At some point the body has to give.

Eric’s Recommendation: Machines won’t kill you, but they will not yield optimal results. There’s nothing that can be accomplished on a machine that can’t be trained more thoroughly with bodyweight, dumbbells, and barbells. Avoid them. 

6.    Feel Versus Real

I stole borrowed this term from Loren Landow. If you don’t feel an exercise it doesn’t mean nothing is happening. Conversely, because an exercise is extremely difficult it doesn’t mean it’s creating any actual change. Pick your battles and train for performance. Pain and soreness may result from a tough workout, but they should not be your primary focus in training.

7.    Loading, Reps, Sets, and Volume

Regardless of your goal training for strength and performance yields the best results. Especially with weight training beginners it’s imperative to build a big strength base for better development of all other physical qualities. This is the typical order I use with my clients. 

1.   Dynamic movements: Jumps, sprints, throws

Proper dynamic warm up, three to five sets of three to five reps for activation. More specifics are needed for sports performance, but that’s beyond the scope of this article.

2.     Explosive/Power: Power cleans, snatches, jumps

 Two warm up sets followed by three to five sets of three to five reps. Keep load moderately heavy, but never to failure.  

3.    Compound Strength: Squats, deadlifts, presses, pulls

Pick a couple major movements and perform three to six sets of one to six reps. These should be heavy and difficult, but not past failure. If you can’t perform with good form it’s too heavy.

4.    Compound/higher rep/hypertrophy

 Pick one or two movements and perform two to four sets of eight to fifteen reps. These should be moderately difficult but not failure.

5.    Isolation work

 Pick one or two movements and perform twelve to twenty reps for two or three sets. Incomplete recovery can be used and near-failure is fine. Don’t go overboard, this is icing on the cake.

Eric’s Recommendation: Per the explanation above there is some variability in exercise selection and loading. Place your focus on the explosive and compound strength exercises, they are responsible for at least 80% of your results. Program hypertrophy and isolation work sparingly to bring up weak points.

8.    Warm-Up

Jumping right into a workout without a thorough warm-up is recipe for injury. Take 10 minutes and get it done, no excuses! Warm-ups should incorporates active stretching techniques, sport-specific movements, and neural activation exercises. These modalities are performed to mimic the movement-specific demands of the activity, address movement deficiencies, increase core and ligament temperature, stimulate the nervous system, increase stability, and activate proprioceptors (Yauss and Rotchstein, 2011). In other words, the warm-up should mimic target key movement patterns and muscles that will be trained during your upcoming session.

Eric’s recommendation: watch this=>  Agile 8 by Joe DeFranco. Or try this: Here’s a sample lower body day: 1×10/each

  • Walking knee hug
  • Cradle walk
  • Forward lunge
  • Reverse lunge w/reach
  • Spiderman’s
  •  Sub-Scap Push-Ups
  • Body Weight Squats

 Your warm-up doesn’t need to be complicated, but it can’t be neglected.

It’s a Wrap

There is a ton of information out there for beginning weightlifters; unfortunately, that’s part of the problem. By giving you the knowledge and principles on how the best bodies are built you’re now armed with the tools to maximize your time in the gym. The basics are best whether you’re a 55 year old female hittin’ the gym for the first time or a high school athlete trying to get bigger, faster, and stronger.  

Join the Discussion on Facebook:

 

Down with fads,  it’s time to base training around time-tried principles and knowledge for the best results.

 

Citations:

Baechle, Thomas, and Roger Earle. Essentials of Strength and Conditioning. 3rd. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics , 2008. 390-391. Print.

Yauss, B. and Rotchstein, A. (2011). The acute and chronic benefits of movement prep for the soccer athlete. NSCA’s Performance Training Journal, 10, 3, 1116.

High Frequency Training: Your Strength Building Solution

Expert Tips to Build Muscle, build muscle

High Frequency Training is a hotly debated topic.

Some “experts” say you should demolish every muscle once per week, blitzing the body part split. Others say focus on an upper-lower or total body split because training major movement patterns more frequently will stimulate faster gains in strength and size.

I’m with High Frequency Training. Here’s Why. 

Training Frequency the number of sessions performed per unit of time, is the most important training variable for building size, strength, and skill mastery for beginners.

For those looking to gain muscle and strength frequent training is the premier and logical choice for the fastest gains. Unfortunately, most people still follow bodybuilding body-part split routines popularized in every fitness magazine over the last three decades. These routines aren’t ideal for anyone except high-level bodybuilders.

Get Your 12 Week HFT Mass Program Today

Consider the Following:

If you’re learning a new language is it best to study for five hours one day per week, or 45 minutes seven days per week?

Would you be stronger performing squats in 52 workouts per year or 104?

I would go with 45 minutes per day, seven days per week and 104 workouts without a doubt.

But Why?

Consistent exposure to stimuli is vital for learning new things and movement patterns.

The Research on High Frequency Training

In 2000 the study Comparison of 1 Day and 3 Days Per Week of Equal-Volume Resistance Training in Experienced Subjects 25 experienced participants were randomly separated into training groups. Group one performed one day per week of strength training with three sets to failure, with rep ranges moving from three to ten reps per set.

Group two performed workouts three days per week with one set to failure per day, while working in the same rep ranges. Volume was kept the exact same, yet group two had greater increases in both lean body mass and improved one-rep max strength. With total volume held constant, spreading the training frequency to three doses per week produced superior results in both strength and muscular hypertrophy.

high frequency training

In a 1997 study titled Isometric torso rotation strength: effect of training frequency on its development 33 men and 25 women were tested for rotational strength before and after 12 weeks of training. Groups were split into training groups that exercises one, two, or three times per week.

Although there were not major differences between groups training two or three times per week, strength was significantly increased compared to the one time per week training group. Once again, a higher frequency than one time per week was shown to improve strength gains.

In a 2010 study titled Anabolic processes in human skeletal muscle: restoring the identities of growth Hormone and Testosterone it was found that repeated phases of net protein balance, which can be generated in response to repeated bouts of resistance exercise and protein ingestion, underpins muscle hypertrophy.

This shows that frequent exposure to training increases protein synthesis at the cellular level, leading to greater amounts of muscle growth.

High Frequency Training for Hypertrophy and Strength

Full body workouts are the premier and logical choice for beginners. The more muscle you stimulate frequently the more muscle and strength you’ll build, with three or four workouts per week being plenty.

high frequency training
PhotoCredit:elitefts.net

To set up your own full-body workout start with a dynamic warm-up to activate muscles, lubricate joints, and prepare the body for activity.

Before hitting the weights start with some box jumps or medicine ball slams to fire up the central nervous system to lift more weight. Two or three sets of three to five reps should be plenty.

Pick an upper body push, an upper body pull and a compound lower body exercise.

This includes squats, lunges, deadlifts, bench presses, push-ups, chin-ups, rows, cleans, overhead presses, and glute bridges.

Stick with four or five sets of two to eight reps with one or two minutes of rest between sets. Multi-joint exercises should be practiced with a high training frequency and technically mastered for both safety and results.

Plan ten minutes (yes, only ten) at the end of your workout of free time to do things you want to do, whether it’s abs, biceps curls, or somersaults across the floor.

Have fun and enjoy yourself. I highly recommend a qualified coach to get you off on the right foot.

Upper/ Lower Splits

If you’ve been training for a solid year while making significant strength gains you can get more creative.

I recommend intermediates move to an upper-lower split, with halves of the body being hit at least 48 hours apart. Pick two presses and two or three pulling exercises performed in alternative sets on upper body days. Always train strength first and add weight to the bar, but feel free to add in some higher rep work to build those “pretty bumps.

According to The Mechanisms of Hypertrophy and Their Application to Resistance Training.” Chasing the pump is alright, as the accumulation of metabolites from exercise requires the use of anaerobic glycolysis resulting in the buildup of lactate, hydrogen ions, and other metabolites.

high frequency training

This metabolic stress leads to greater muscle fiber damage, furthering the need for tissue repair and nutrient shuttling to the source of damage.

Lower body workouts should be at least 48 hours apart as well, with 72 being ideal for maximum recovery.

Just like the upper body workouts train strength first and add weight to the bar, but feel free to add in some higher rep work to stimulate the metabolic environment to promote further muscle growth.

Here’s a sample lower body day: 1×10/each

  • Walking knee hug
  • Cradle walk
  • Straight leg march
  • Dynamic quad stretch
  • Forward lunge
  • Reverse lunge w/reach
  • Spiderman’s
  • Sub-Scap Push-Ups
  • Body Weight Squats
  • Box Jump 3×3

Weight Room:

1.Front Squat 5×5

2a.Romanian Deadlift 4×8

2b. Side plank 4×30 seconds

3a. Bulgarian Split Squat 3×12-15

3b. Hanging leg raises 3×10-15

4. Free time/ intervals/ Pretty bumps

*Note: If you’re a competitive athlete this isn’t a program for you. You’ll need more specialization and movement included early in the session. Many athletes succeed with total body programs because they place a premium on recovery. 

 Routines that train movements or muscles only one time per week are not optimal for high-performance strength development, especially for beginners. I recommend training each movement pattern at least twice per week for the best gains in strength, muscle, and performance.

High Frequency Training for Athletes and Skill Mastery

 “Practice doesn’t make perfect. Perfect practice makes perfect.” –Vince Lombardi

For learning a new movement or athletic skill the more frequently you practice the quicker it’s learned, eventually leading to unconscious competence—being able to perform a skill correctly without conscious thought.

Training skills to the point muscle memory is imperative for athlete success and transfer from the weight room. Practicing solid body position and movements like triple-extension to perfection will reinforce movement in the field of play.

athletes, sports performance, high frequency training

 

These same principles apply to anyone learning a new skill or movement. The more frequently you practice perfect technique the faster the learning process and subsequent gains.

Movement skill development must be grooved correctly until it becomes automatic and follows the following continuum: (Landow, 2013)
Unconscious Incompetence: Athlete looks clueless, unable to comprehend what is needed.

Conscious Incompetence: Athlete understands what’s needed, unable to produce it.

Conscious Incompetence:  Athlete can reproduce with much needed concentration, but not in series.

Unconscious Competence: Automatic near perfection execution without thought.

Training for athletic gains is a process that can’t be served due justice in this post, but matching movement patterns to movements required in sport is a key step. (No, this doesn’t mean throwing 12lb baseballs.) For more in-depth sports performance specialization read this & this.

It’s a Wrap ( In Dr. Dre Voice)

The process of perfecting a skill, whether it’s shooting free throws or lifting technique, takes much practice. Total body and upper-lower training splits provide higher frequency training to maximize strength and muscle-building gains with compound lifts.  

Put the leg extensions and seven variations of biceps curls on the back-burner and get back to what’s essential: high-frequency training with big movements, your strength building solution. 

Get Your 12 Week HFT Mass Program Today

Resources:

McLester, J., Bishop, E., & Guilliams, M. (2000). Comparison of 1 day and 3 days per week of equal-volume resistance training in experienced subjects. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 14(3). Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2000/08000/Comparison_of_1_Day_and_3_Days_Per_Week_of.6.aspx

DeMichele, P. L., Pollock, M. L., Graves, J. E., Foster, D. N., Carpenter, D., Garzarella, L., Brechue, W., & Fulton, M. (1997). Isometric torso rotation strength: effect of training frequency on its development. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 78(1), 64-69. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9014960

Landow, L. (2013, August). In Loren Landow (Chair). Train to win. Steadman Hawkins Sports Performance Train to win performance mentorship, Denver, Colorado.

Phillips, S., & West, D. (2010). Anabolic processes in human skeletal muscle: restoring the identities of growth hormone and testosterone. Physican and Sportsmedicine, 38(3), 97-104. doi: 10.3810/psm.2010.10.1814

Schoenfeld, Brad. “The Mechanisms of Hypertrophy and Their Application to Resistance Training.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 24.10 (2010): 2857. Web. 21 Nov. 2013.

photo credit: planetc1 via photopin cc

photo credit: Ed Yourdon via photopin cc

Go to Top