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athletic power training

Four Tips to Implement Maximize Athletic Power Training

Key Points:

Relative Strength is the secret sauce that allows you to run faster, move quicker, and jump higher

-Absolute strength and relative strength are both vital to athletes, but more attention must be paid to relative strength for athletes.

– Strength is a key component for athletic success, but of one of many components.

-Further increasing strength levels may reach a point of diminishing returns in athletic performance if the pursuit of strength is overemphasized other components of sport.

I’m going to let you in on a little secret that most magazines and the industry don’t want you to hear.

Absolute strength gets all the glory, but relative strength for athletes reigns king, especially to maximize athletic power training. Being big and strong alone isn’t enough for performance, you must be relatively stronger than your opponents to hold a competitive advantage.

Wait…What?


“I thought being super strong was a cure-all?”

Absolute strength is very important for force output, but improving relative strength is the oh-so secret sauce to maximize athletic power training, allowing you to run faster, move quicker, and jump higher.

All else being equal, the athlete with the higher relative strength has the competitive advantage as an athlete.

That’s one of the main reasons athletes don’t train exactly like powerlifters, and a reason powerlifters don’t train exactly like athletes.

They require different skills; have individual needs, and limited resources to train. Plain and simple, your body makes specific adaptations to the imposed demands or the SAID principle.

To be honest, not everyone needs to be jacked out of their minds and squat 350+ pounds to be a better athlete. Those guys are a dime a dozen– just by following progressive overload, cramming food down your gullet, and sleeping enough you’ll get big and strong.

On the contrary, witnessing smaller guys performing insane feats of strength during sports are few and far between Think 5’8″ Nate Robinson throwing down Tomahawk dunks or 5’6” Darren Sproles juking, sprinting, and running through opponents. When it comes to movement-based athletes relative strength reigns king.

As a coach who works with athletes on both sides of the spectrum, I’m fortunate to have an improved perspective on what my athletes need to emphasize to maximize training and carryover into sports.

By exclusively focusing on adding plates to the bar athletes reach a point of diminishing returns if it causes the un-necessary allocation of training and recovery resources.

Stop Taking Every Strength Building Article as the End all Be All

I want to be crystal clear–absolute strength is essential for athletes. To be relatively strong you must have a base of absolute strength.

Relative strength= absolute strength/bodyweight 

But, contrary to what most articles say absolute strength isn’t the end all be all–you must be relatively stronger than your competitors to gain a distinct advantage in sports that require movement or have weight restrictions. I love lifting heavy as much as anyone, but there is a point when “strong” is strong enough and the risks of pursuing further strength enhancement outweigh the rewards of a new personal record.

 Take the following example:

Ben Johnson, juiced or not juiced, was an absolute beast on the track and in the gym. With a 600lb+ squats at 170-180lbs he was absolutely stronger and relatively stronger than his competition, but would training to improve his squat as the primary mode of training improve his performance if other training suffers and he potentially gains weight to accommodate his training?

Let’s say his squat is emphasized and bodyweight also increases by ten pounds.

Here are hypothetical numbers:

625lbs squat at 175lbs= 3.57x/bw

650 lbs squat at 185lbs= 3.51x/bw

Or a More practical Example:

405lb squat at 200 lbs. = 2.025 x/bw

425 lb squat at 225 lbs = 1.89 x/bw

In both cases, being stronger in an absolute sense doesn’t improve relative strength, which is the secret sauce to master movement. This difference might seem minor, but if the additional weight results in being a step slower, or losing the ability to decelerate the body is the athlete better? No, they’re less explosive and probably more prone to non-contact injury.

Relative Strength for Athletes 

There are many factors to consider when programming for athletes, but heavy strength training is a tool for improvement, not the end-all-be-all in performance.

Does the allocation of resources towards building more strength with potential gains in size outweigh the benefits of higher relative strength and corresponding improvements in agility, speed, power, and coordination?

No, there are always exceptions like absolute strength athletes such as lineman, throwers, and strongman competitors, but when athletes’ sports are movement-based relative strength reigns king.

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Want to Get Ripped and Optimize Performance❓ [Bookmark for workout below] — Maybe I’m strange here…but I like the idea of building a body that’s just as athletic as it is “aesthetic.” When you improve performance, you tend to function better in every area of life from the gym to your job💰. — Do you feel the same way…like you want a body both looks great 🤩and performs well and the confidence and BELIEF in yourself that comes with it? — If so, you’ll love these types of workouts: — Here’s a sample day built around the hinge/deadlift movement pattern. 1. Broad Jump 3×5 (explosive exercise 2. Deadlift 5×3-5 (strength movement) 3. Barbell RDL 3×12,10,8 (hypertrophy focus, use 3-4 second eccentric) 4a. TRX Inverted Row 4×10 4b. TRX Face Pull 4×12 4c. Alternating Dumbbell Curl 4×12 — This program is best for the athletic generalist who want to zap some fat and gain strength at the same time. — Should you want to build more muscle, dial back the volume on heavy strength work and add in more muscle-building volume.💪🏼 — If you want to develop more athleticism and power, increase your explosive movements and dial back strength work and hypertrophy work. — The options are endless as long as you adjust volume and intensity accordingly: if the volume in one area increases, adjustments in other areas must be altered to allow adequate recovery. — ⬇️If you know someone who wants to get athletic and ripped without living in the gym, send them here⬇️ . . #newyorkcityphotos #athleticaesthetic #physiquetraining #athleticbodybuilding #lookgoodnaked #tnation #throwback #jump #jumptraining #explosiveness #fitnessculture #onlinepersonaltraining #bachperformance #deadliftworkout

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How to Gain Strength without Size:

Strength builds a foundation that improves the ability to train all other qualities—speed, power, agility, and endurance are all improved with increased strength. Although it’s impossible to make only neurological gains or muscular gains with training, emphasizing certain factors will maximize relative strength without un-necessary gains in bodyweight.

Lift Heavy Weights

Lifting- moderate to heavy loads (80%+ 1-RM) will stimulate high-threshold fast-twitch muscle fibers and improve muscle fiber recruitment. Most initial gains in strength training occur as a result of neural adaptations due to increased muscle fiber recruitment and increased rate coding/firing frequency.

Heavy loads will stimulate gains, but in the absence of high significant volume most will result in myofibrillar hypertrophy—actively strengthening the muscle fiber itself. Essentially, lifting heavy the majority of the time will always get you stronger, but not necessarily much bigger. Ensure the exercise selection fits the needs of your athletes and risk to common injury sites is minimized.

 

Bottom Line: Heavy strength training is ideal for improving relative strength, but the exercise selection should match the needs of the sport while minimizing risk to common injury sites. Hoisting heavy weights is still necessary.

Train With Lower Volume

Train high-intensity, but decrease the volume to prevent unnecessary hypertrophy. Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy is growth triggered by higher volume, more metabolic training and increases the storage of non-contractile cell fluid. Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy isn’t itself is non-function, but excessive amounts of hypertrophy are more beneficial to stretching your shirtsleeves than maximizing performance.

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Figured I’d use the 7️⃣ pounds I gained yesterday to crush some deadlifts this morning, working up to triples at 405. This got me thinking… — Don’t waste your time dieting during the holidays. The deck is stacked against you, you’ll beat yourself up mentally about a lack of progress, and the anxiety of it all will prevent you from enjoying what SHOULD be a special time of year. — Instead, use this as a time to build metabolism boosting muscle. — Here’s why: ➡️Building Muscle Boosts Your Metabolism: If you have more lean muscle, you’ll be able to burn more calories while your laid up on the couch after a turkey and stuffing induced coma. Over time, these small improves make a HUGE difference in metabolic health and your ability to lose fat. — ➡️Building Muscle Gives you a Dietary “Buffer”: Have you seen someone who’s in great shape devour three plates of food and wonder, “How can they eat THAT and still look great?” Building muscle is a cheat code of sorts as it allows you to store more “fuel” in your muscles as glycogen rather than depositing the extra piece of pumpkin 🥧 on your belly. — Besides…What’s the point of all this work if you can’t kick back and enjoy yourself? . . . #thanksgiving #blackfriday #athleticbody #lookgoodnaked #deadlift #deadliftday #backday #buildmuscleburnfat #holidayworkout #menshealth #mensfitness #caffeineandkilos #mackweldon

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Bottom line: Yeah, the occasional pump is okay, but there’s no need train like a bodybuilder if your goals are improved relative strength and performance. Limit your training volume and emphasize intensity to maximize strength gains with additional hypertrophy.

Incorporate Explosive Exercises

Most barbell, dumbbell, and bodyweight exercises can be performed in an explosive manor, but the best are the Olympic lifts, throws, and jumps. Throws and jumps are great for nervous system activation, pure speed work, and improving overall athleticism directly after a warm-up.

Olympic lifts are staples in most resistance training programs unless the performance risks to important body parts for sport performance. Few exercises are as demanding as cleans, split jerks and snatches—performing these along will make workouts more efficient and decrease the training volume needed for performance gains.

 

Bottom Line: Sprint, throw, jump, and lift explosively to maximize nervous system efficiency in your workouts. By hoisting weights with max speed you’ll activate more muscle fibers and in-turn, become relatively stronger and more explosive. BOOOYAH.

Increase Rest Periods

Longer rest periods will allow better quality reps, higher training loads, better neural recovery, and decrease the acidic muscular environment. If you’re incorporating heavy and explosive exercises you want to perform them with technical proficiency to increase performance, not mega-setted with a handful of other exercises. Creating a metabolic and acidic environment is also conducive to building muscle—something you’re looking to avoid if you want to maximize relative strength over hypertrophy.

Plyo Push Up

Rack Clean

Bottom Line: Keep most weight training heavy and explosive with full recovery rather than being metabolically demanding. You’ll improve technique and maximize performance rather than gasp for air while peeling your sweaty carcass out of the squat rack.

What This Means for You:
Whether you’re a coaching practitioner, an athlete, or an iron junky it’s important to have perspective on what different goals entail. If you’re looking to improve strength and not necessarily gain muscle or bodyweight then these recommendations are right up your alley.

Not every one of these factors needs to be implemented immediately nor year-round, but they should serve as a great reminder on how constant heavy lifting, training volume, lifting speed, rest periods, and dietary choices all fit into the big picture of getting more explosive.

The Wrap Up

Quality strength training is one of the fastest ways to improve performance, but don’t be obsessed with huge absolute strength numbers as the end-all-be-all in performance.

Relative Strength is the secret sauce that allows you to run faster, move quicker, and jump higher. Every aspect of training is a tool in the performance toolbox– focus on the variables that fill needs of each athlete rather than blindly attaching absolute strength as the holy grail of performance.

photo credit: Keith Allison via photopin cc

Are you looking for a comprehensive, simple to follow workout to combine all the training variables covered in this article? Grab your copy of the Power Primer by clicking the image below:

Four Training Splits to Build an Athletic Body

The Power Primer

Spoiler alert: There is no perfect training split when it comes to building an athletic body, or any body for that matter. It’s best to find a program you’ll do consistently even when life gets in the way. That said, knowing which “knobs” to turn is essential in developing a body that performs as good as it looks.

When your training takes a sharp dive off the deep end and your progress stalls it’s time to change.

Not just your grip, your stance, or another micro progression. Nor a change from front squats to back squats.

No, I’m talking a monumental shift.

A new training split.

Yes, your long-term training principles should remain constant, but you need new methods.

As long as you’re adding weight to the bar, moving like an athlete, eating well, and sleeping enough then a new training split is what you need to build transform your body and get a strong, jacked, and athletic body.

The Power Primer, athletic body

That said, let’s review the best splits to help you build a stronger, shredded, and athletic body.  I’ll explain the good and the bad of each, giving you the knowledge to pick your next training split so you can build the lean, athletic look you’re after.

Either way, a new program is exciting—renewed motivation will have you attacking each workout and getting in the best shape of your life. The Power Primer is such a program.

Training Your Core

Upper Lower Training Split

Upper-lower training splits are an excellent training split to help you build strength and muscle with four workouts per week.

Pros: Upper-Lower training splits are a great progression from total body training and work well if you want to gain muscle and strength.

Upper-Lower splits allow greater training frequency for quicker learning and mastering your lifts while still lifting heavy to build strength. Together, this helps you get better at your big lifts, train with enough volume to build muscle, and lift heavy enough to get strong. 

Cons: Upper body workouts can take much longer than lower body workouts. Sure, this is great for your biceps, but if you crave consistency and have troubles working out when life get’s crazy, the inconsistency between workout times might drive you crazy.


Plus, if you’ve been following bodybuilding style body part splits (chest on Monday, back on Tuesday etc), then you might notice you’re not recovering as quickly. Of course, you can fix this by spending time with recovery methods like foam rolling, getting 7-8 hours per sleep, and when all else fails, eating more steak

bach performance, athletic body

Here’s a sample outline:

Monday: Upper Body (Push Strength Emphasis)

Tuesday: Lower Body (Squat Pattern Strength Emphasis)

Wednesday: Off/active recovery

Thursday: Upper Body (Pull Strength Emphasis)

Friday: Lower Body (Hinge pattern strength Focus)

Saturday/Sunday: Off

Total Body Training Split
When you train your upper and lower body in the same workout, you’re doing a total body workout. Another way to think of it is rather than training each muscle individually, you’re training your body as an integrated machine.

Pros: If you only have three days to workout per week or have issues skipping workouts, then look no further. Since you’re training your entire body you’ll minimize the fluff. There’s no need for 13 variations of lateral raises when your training pressing, pulling, squatting, lunging, and deadlifting movements multiple times per week.  

Since you’re training muscles as much as 2-3 times per week, you’ll trigger more frequent protein synthesis in your muscles being trained, potentially helping you build muscle faster.

And if you’re looking to drop a few pounds?


Total body workouts can cause a massive disruption to your body as it tries to catch up with multiple muscle groups working in a short period of time to help you lose fat.

Cons: One of the downsides of total body workouts is you may get bored, especially if you crave variety and the novelty of a well-timed biceps pump. Plus, if you’re looking to maximize muscular size, then the low volume of workouts will limit some of your gains. A key component of muscle growth is metabolic stress, so unless you add a high-rep finisher like biceps curls to failure, you won’t get as big as a house with total body training.

Moreover, stronger and more experienced lifters struggle recovering from three hard leg training workouts per week. You’ll need to vary how often you go heavy, possibly adopting an undulated periodization model.

Still, among all training splits total body workouts are your best bet if you tend to program hop, skip workouts, and get “too busy” to train….especially if you’re skipping leg day. 

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✔️TOTAL BODY TRAINING SPLITS by @Bachperformance✔️ ⠀ Your workouts should improve, not consume your life. ⠀ During the holidays, total body training splits are often your best choice because they hit every major muscle group each time you train. ⠀ Even if you miss a workout per week, you’re still creating a solid training response to build muscle, lose fat, and boost performance. ⠀ Here are two different muscle building workouts for busy people who need go hit the gym and get on eoth their lives. You can alternate these in an A-B-A-B schedule. ⠀ Monday: Day A
⠀
Wednesday: Day B
⠀
Friday: Day A
⠀
Sunday: Day B ⠀ 👉Caveat: Once you get STRONG LIKE BULL it will get tougher to recover from total body workouts, especially if you’re lifting heavy. ⠀
But if you’re 🤯stressed, slammed, and want to look good naked 😎without living in the gym? ⠀
Look no further than today body workouts. ⠀
Let us know your current training split below👇 . . . . . #fullbody #fullbodyworkout #buildmuscle #gainmuscle #musclescience #musclegrowth #musclescientist #getstrong #muscleman #muscled

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Example:

Day One:

1.Power Clean 5×3

2.Bench Press 3×6

3.Lunge 3×8-12

4a.Farmer Walks 3×30 seconds

4b. Dips 3x 30 seconds timed set

Day Two:

1.Push Press 5×3

2.Deadlift 4×6

3.Chin Up 3×8-12

4a.Plank 3×30 seconds

4b. Biceps Curl 3x 30 seconds timed set

P.S. Want to build a body that looks as good as it performs? Grab your copy of the Power Primer below.

 

Push-Pull Training Split

If you’re like most people, you have a tendency to train what you see in the mirror while conveniently forgetting about the back side of your body.

Tsk. Tsk.

As much as we all like to push it like Salt-N-Pepa, building a strong, athletic, and shredded body requires more balance. 

Enter the push/pull training split, arguably the most balanced training split for total body strength, size, and athleticism.

On “pull” days, you’ll hammer the backside of your body, hitting muscles like your lats, traps, glutes, and hamstrings.


On push-days, you’ll hit the movements to train your chest, shoulders, triceps, quads, and abs.

You can work the entire front side of your body or the back side of your body all in one workout. Alternatively, you can break these days down further by breaking these workouts into upper body and lower body days each.

For example…

-Upper Body Push (chest, triceps, shoulders)
-Upper Body Pull (Lats, biceps, rear delts, traps)
-Lower Body Push (squats, leg extensions, lunges)
-Lower Body Pull (deadlifts, good mornings, hip thrusts)

Pros: Push-Pull routines are a great option for experienced lifters as they’re both efficient and flexible. You’ll be able to train with enough volume to trigger muscle growth without living in the gym. 

Cons: There are very few issues with these workouts. The biggest hiccup will come if you miss workouts and start skipping “pull” or “lower body” workouts. Push-pull workouts are okay, but not great for beginners in the gym.

Example:

Day One: Pull (legs/hamstrings, back, biceps, lower back)

Day Two: Push (chest, shoulders, triceps, legs/quads, abs)

Day Three: OFF

Day Four: Pull (legs/hamstrings, back, biceps, lower back)

Day Five: Push (chest, shoulders, triceps, legs/quads, abs)

Day Six: OFF

Day Seven: OFF

Intensive/Extensive Training Split

Giggity.

These are my favorite.

The intensive/extensive split bases training splits on the neural demands of a workout.

For example, a heavy/explosive day is often followed by a metabolic/higher volume bodybuilding style day.

This also corresponds with conditioning.

For example, a workout with squat jumps followed by heavy squats, and sprints workout is intensive, as it is very demanding on your nervous system and joints. If you pair too many neurally intensive workouts in a row, you’ll end up beat up, beaten down, and overtraining.

Hard pass, right?


Instead, it’s best to follow an intensive training split with an extensive workout. An example here would be doing an upper body workout focused on higher reps sets of 10-15 reps, shorter rest, and lighter weight. You lift as heavy, but you’ll  create tons of metabolic stress to build muscle, lose fat, and improve your endurance. 

Pros: Intensive/Extensive training splits are lifting strategy ideal for people looking to get stronger, more muscular, and more athletic at the same time.
If you want to train like an athlete, it’s easy to add high technical sprint work on the intensive days.
If you want to build muscle, you’ll train heavy enough to trigger increases in anabolic hormones and the tension needed to build muscle. Still, extensive days allow you to train light enough to get an incredible pump.

And for fat loss? 
They work here too. The variety of training stimulus isn’t too much to recover from, yet it’s enough to help you lose fat.

Cons: They’re difficult to program. If your primary goal is to look hot naked (hey, I can’t blame you), you’ll want to eliminate some of the intensive work and focus on some more higher rep work. If your goals are performance-based, the opposite is true.

If you train too many factors too close together, you risk the chance of becoming the “jack of all trades and the master of none,” wallowing in mediocrity and not really getting good at any one thing.

Plus, intensive workouts are longer as you’ll need to pay more attention to your rest if you want to maximize performance.

Sample Workout

This is focused on keeping you athletic, but a bit more on body composition so you look great naked. We call it the Athletic-Aesthetic Program, which we developed for our friends over at T-Nation.

Monday: Deadlift/Hinge Focus

1a.Explosive exercise: Broad Jump 3×3, rest 30 seconds

1b. Barbell Cleans 3×3, rest 90 seconds

2.Pure Strength Exercise: Deadlift 5×3, rest 2 minutes

3a. Hypertrophy focus: Barbell Romanian Deadlift 4×5, Rest 0

Notes: Use a 3-4 second eccentric on each rep.

3b. Pigeon stretch 3×30 seconds/side rest 0

4a. Trx/Chain Inverted Row 4×10, rest 30s

4b. Stability Ball lockout 4×45-60 seconds, rest 30s

Tuesday: Overhead Press Focus

1.Explosive exercise: Medicine Ball Overhead Slam 3×3, rest 30 seconds

2.Pure strength exercise: Overhead Press (any barbell variation) 5×3,  rest 2 minutes

3.Hypertrophy focus: Chin Up 4×8 rest 90 seconds

4a. One arm dumbbell shoulder press 3×12,10,8/side, rest 0-30s

4b. Dumbbell lean away lateral raise 3×12/side, rest 0-30s

4b. Dumbbell lateral raise 3×12, rest 0-30s

5a. Dumbbell chest supported row 3×10-12, rest 30s https://vimeo.com/298841607 

5b. Dumbbell Shrug with 3-second pause 3×10-12, rest 60s

 

Thursday: Squat Focus

1a.Explosive exercise: Dumbbell Squat Jump 3×3, rest 60 seconds

1b. Barbell High Pull 3×3, rest 60 seconds

2. High Bar Back Squat 5×3, rest 2 minutes

3.Hypertrophy focus: Dumbbell Walking Lunge 5×10/leg

4a. Stability Ball hamstring curl 3×12, rest 0

4b. Calf Raise 3×12

Notes: In smith machine, squat machine, or leg press. Five second eccentric, three-second pause at peak contraction of each rep.

5a. Sicilian Crunch 3×10, rest 0s

Notes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKOmsHx8bXI 

5b. Cable Crunch 3×10, rest 0s https://vimeo.com/manage/212917077/general 

5c. Elbow Tap 3×5/side, rest 0-30s https://vimeo.com/manage/156272761/general 

Saturday: Bench Focus

1.Explosive exercise: Incline Plyo Push-Up 3×5,  rest 30 seconds

2.Pure strength exercise: Close-Grip Barbell Bench Press 5×5,  rest 2 minutes

 3a. Hypertrophy focus: Supinating Cable Chest Press 5×12

 3b. Half Kneeling One Arm Cable Row 4×12/arm

 4a. Close Grip Lat Pull Down 3×10, rest 0s

 4b. Incline Dumbbell Biceps Curl 3×10, rest 60s

 5a. Pinwheel curl 3×8/side, rest 30s https://vimeo.com/manage/169868784/general 

 5b.Dumbbell Overhead Triceps Extension 3×15, rest 30s

 So, which workout is best for building an athletic body?

Your training must be specific to your goal. 

If your goal is to look great naked above all else, then by all means trade in your power cleans for biceps curls. 

On the flip side, if you need to build muscle from head to toe and get stronger, don’t start your workouts by curling in the squat rack. 

How much time will you dedicate to training?

Regardless of how “busy” you are you still have 24 hours like the rest of us. I don’t say this to be a dick, but it’s true.
You have the time to prioritize training if you want your dream body. Regardless, weigh how committed you are and pick a training split you know you’ll do consistently.

How experienced are you in the gym?

For most guys, they’re best off crushing total body or upper lower training splits to get strong, explosive and athletic. Still, make sure you’re varying training as you gain strength and experience to prevent plateaus and minimize joint stress.

Do you focus on recovery…or only training?

The body is an integrated system. Rather than looking at recovery based on how your muscles feel you must take into account everyday stress, the nervous system, sleep quality, and nutrition.

For example, for a few years I crushed training in a high-end performance facility. That meant tons of sprints, jumps, throws, coffee, and explosive demonstrations. All these short, high-intensity bouts added up quickly as my energy fluctuated. I had to dial back heavy lifting, sprints, and jumps.
Now that I train fewer clients, write more, and demo less, I’m more recovered and can train harder more often.

Stress is systemic, everything counts and should be factored into your training.

Your Training Split to Build an Athletic Body

If your current training isn’t helping your build an athletic body, then you need to make a change. 

Don’t fall into the trap of endlessly pursuing one goal at the expense of all others

That’s fine for elite athletes.

But for the rest of us, we’re after the total package.

You probably want to be…

Strong in the gym, yet athletic enough to kick ass on the weekends.

 Strong, lean, and athletic. 

Happy and confident with your shirt off. 

There’s no better tool to bridge the gap between the body you want and the athleticism you deserve than my latest program The Power Primer, 2.0.

 I’ve created a Full Eight Months worth of programming to get you Strong, Shredded, and Athletic.

This isn’t a program for athletes.

It’s for those of us that refuse to accept pathetic athleticism a the cost of building your best-looking body.

It’s time to bridge the gap between looking your best and performing like an athlete. 

It’s time for the Power Primer. And it can be yours for less than $.17 (yes, 17 cents) per workout. 

 

thePowerprimer athlete strong

>> Get The Power Primer here <<

For less than you spend on protein powder each month, you’ll have all your workouts expertly planned, organized, and guided by a custom video guide from now until the Spring of 2019.

 

1. Gould D, Petlichkoff L. Participation motivation and attrition in young athletes. In: Smoll FL, Magill RA, Ash MJ, eds. Children in Sport. 3rd ed. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics; 1988:161-178.

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